Saturday, 30 May 2020

Chorus of the Dolphins

It's well-known that cetaceans - dolphins, porpoises, and whales - make calls to communicate with one another, in addition to the sonar pings used to navigate. The complexity of these calls varies significantly between species, although even sperm whales, for example, producing little more than a regular pattern of clicks, while humpback whales produce what appear to be sophisticated 'songs'.

Among the most studied of such calls are those of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.) which are the type most commonly seen in aquaria, making them relatively easy to observe. Having said which, it was only in 1998 that scientists confirmed that there was more than one species of bottlenose, leading to some confusion as to which one lived where and, by extension, which one any given prior study referred to. And, as I blogged about when the announcement was made back in 2011, we now know of a third one as well.

Sunday, 24 May 2020

Stopping the Water Vole Killer

I have often referred on this blog to the number of mammal species that are currently faced with extinction, of being wiped totally from the face of the Earth. Depending on how strictly you want to define the threat, this could be anything up to 25% of the total known species, although it's worth noting that a great many other species have declining populations, if not ones that are likely to vanish altogether any time soon.

For many species, even if extinction is not a threat, extirpation can be. This is, essentially, a local extinction, where the species dies off entirely in some particular area, but still survives somewhere else. While it can be any area you like, in conservation terms, we tend to be talking about either countries or reasonably sized islands. Or, as is the case in Britain, both.

Many species of mammal have been extirpated from the British Isles over the course of our history. Wolves are one of the more famous examples here, with the last official record of a dead wolf dating from 1680 in Scotland (it's unlikely to have literally been the last, and rumours continued for another hundred years or so, although it's hard to know how many of them were accurate). In a number of other cases, such as the hazel dormouse, local populations today very much seem to be in decline.

Sunday, 17 May 2020

Small Cats: The Manul and the Rusty-Spotted Cat

The leopard cat and its relatives form one branch in the larger feline family tree, and one that's entirely native to Asia. These live, for the most part, in tropical parts of the continent, often close to plentiful water. But at least one other close relative instead prefers to live in environments that are both much colder and much drier.

Perhaps the most popular name for the animal in English is Pallas's cat (Otocolobus manul), which tends to lead to an argument as to whether there's an 's' after the apostrophe or not. (There usually is, these days, but it's far from universal). For convenience, however, I'm going to use the alternative name of manul, which derives from the original Mongolian name of the animal.

Saturday, 9 May 2020

Ancient Argentinian Armadillos

Nine-banded armadillo
Armadillos are, I suspect most people would agree, fairly odd-looking animals. Their unusual appearance is evident to a layman, and more detailed analyses of their biology and internal anatomy only bear this out. As one might expect for creatures with such a distinctive appearance, they have a relatively long fossil history, having split from other mammal groups a long time ago. The fact that their skin literally has bone embedded in it also helps when it comes to finding - and identifying - fossil remains.

Sunday, 3 May 2020

Let's Split the Party!

Last week, I described how, over the last few decades, populations of gray seals have recovered from a near-total local extinction in US waters. Clearly, other species facing similar threats, across the world, have not been so lucky. The rapid pace of human expansion simply overwhelms the ability of some species to cope, whether it be through direct effects (expansion of agriculture, cities, transport networks, and so on) or indirect ones (climate change, most obviously).

In the millions of years before humans appeared on the scene the world was changing at a slow enough pace that it was possible for mammal species to evolve their way out of a problem. Many didn't, of course, and went extinct, but others gave rise to newer species that outlived them. Today, it's not just the scale of the changes humans are making that has caused problems for some species, but also their speed.

When it comes to dealing with very rapid changes in the environment - whether human-caused or otherwise - mammals have both advantages and disadvantages compared to some other species. On the negative front, mammals, especially the larger ones, have long generation times, meaning that any effect of evolution, even on a relatively minor scale, is inevitably going to be slow.